An annual low plant with orange flowers. Field marigold is valued for repeling soil nematodes, so it is sometimes sown as a forecrop for vegetables, or for rhizome and bulb flowers. It is still used in medicine today. Wild, non-cultivar seeds
€2,00 – €6,00
Polish name: field marigold
Latin name: Calendula arvensis L.
Family: the aster family Asteraceae (composites Compositae), subfamily: chicories Cichorioidae
Status in Poland: cultivated, within the borders of the first and second Polish Republic, it was very rare in Volhynia and Podolia, probably as a weed or escapee
An annual plant with a very distinct smell, straight root, grooved shoots, oblong lanceolate leaves, and yellow flower heads. It develops a thin, straight, spindle-shaped root. It has a delicately tomentosed, alternate spiral foliaged stem.
It develops leaves without petioles, lanceolate, and also very variable in shape: with a finely serrated blade, or a entire-margined; with an obtuse, or acute tip. It has two types of flowers: ray, and disc, which are gathered in head-type inflorescences, commonly called “flowers”. Single head usually reaches 20 mm in diameter, and consists of sepals, several dozen (20-50) ray florets and several hundred disc florets.
The field marigold differs from better known in Poland pot marigold in smaller heads, and hanging infructescences. The fruits of the field marigold are achenes clustered in the flower head. Their shape depends on the location in the infructescence: the inside ones are rolled up, with short spikes and narrow, side wings; while the outer ones are larger, with a rostrum on the apex, with longer spikes, and no wings; but they are all bent like a sickle.
Growing field marigolds is not difficult. It prefers wetter positions than pot marigold, but very light and fertile. It can be sown in the ground a long time: from the end of March to the end of June. The optimal spacing is 30-40 by 20-25 cm. Adequate soil drainage is important to avoid root rot.
Marigolds are valued for repelling soil nematodes, so they are sometimes sown as a forecrop for vegetables or for rhizome and bulb flowers. Despite their strong aroma, marigolds are easily affected by powdery mildews. It is recommended to remove infected specimens, eventually fungicide spraying.
Calendula arvensis was used in folk medicine, and for cooking. Its young stems, and leaves are eaten like other asters, the inflorescences can also be pickled.
On the south of Europe the field marigold was a sedative, diuretic, diaphoretic and antipyretic medicine. Most of the active ingredient contained in marigold herb are foaming saponin glycosides, insoluble or poorly soluble in water, therefore in cosmetology oil or alcohol extracts are used.
Field marigold is pollinated by bees, but there are no detailed data on the pollen and nectar yield of this plant.